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The Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project is a group dedicated to researching Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (often referred to as LENR) while sharing all procedures, data, and results openly online. We rely on comments from online contributors to aid us in developing our experiments and contemplating the results. We invite everyone to participate in our discussions, which take place in the comments of our experiment posts. These links can be seen along the right-hand side of this page. Please browse around and give us your feedback. We look forward to seeing you around Quantum Heat.

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Often, the main argument of skeptics about excess heat measurement in LENR experiments is that is could be chemical.

So let's dig into the subject, now that we know we can have 71 mg of dihydrogen in the cell.

Let's assume we also have O2 oxygen in the cell and that the reaction is producing H2O from H2 and O2.
This is one of the most exothermic chemical reaction known. It is used to send rockets to the Moon or to Mars.

At 298°K, the bond energies involved are (note that depending on the book, the values can slightly vary):

H-H:   436 kJ/mol
O=O: 495 kJ/mol
H-O-H:   493.5 + 424.4 = 918 kJ/mol

To produce 1 mole of water from 1 mole of H2 and half a mole of O2, the H-H single bond and the O=O dual bond needs to be broken.

Energy to make monoatomic H and O: 436 + 495/2 = 683.5 kJ / mol
Bond energy stored in H2O molecule : 918 kJ/mol
Energy produced: 918 - 683.5 = 234.5 kJ per mole of H2O

As we need 1 mole of H2 to produce 1 mole of H2O and as we have at maximum 0.0352 mole of H2 in the cell,
the maximum chemical energy we can produce is: 0.0352 * 234.5 = 8.25 kJ

However as we do not have O2 in the cell, the best source of oxygen is in the SiO2 of the glass:

Si-O: 368 kJ/mol

Energy to make monoatomic H and O: 436 + 368 = 804 kJ / mol
Bond energy stored in H2O molecule : 918 kJ/mol
Energy produced: 918 - 804 = 114 kJ per mole of H2O

Chemical energy in the cell: 0.0352 * 114 = 4.01 kJ

Even, in very hypothetic worst case scenario, 8.25 kJ corresponds to only 2.29 W·h
And this would mean that the cell pressure would go from 3.5 bars to 0.0 bar while consuming all hydrogen molecules in the cell.
However, this calculation is an approximation using bond energy at ambient temperature. Both temperature and pressure in the cell are affecting the bond energies, but the orders of magnitude are correct.
More details can be found here: Water’s Hydrogen Bond Strength

In conclusion, with our cell, any excess power above 1 watt during multiple hours cannot be chemical.


+1 #6 Ecco 2012-11-21 10:01
@Nicolas Chauvin:

>We tried to improve it by using fused quartz instead of borosilicate glass and it was a mistake.

But nothing would stop the MFMP team trying to wrap the reactor glass tube with one (1) smooth layer of aluminum foil with the shiny side facing the wires, wouldn't it? This should improve IR containment enormously, with the benefit of added quartz glass heat resistance compared to borosilicate, at no added cost.

You don't even need to wrap the glass tube entirely, if you need a "window" for temperature measurements with the IR sensor.

The drawback is that calibration runs will have to be remade from scratch, however.

I'd suggest making a simple test with it as soon as possible on the USA cell to see how much T_Mica changes for a given input power. If as expected, it changes significantly, then it is something worth considering investing time on, performing calibrations and all from scratch.
+1 #5 Nicolas Chauvin 2012-11-21 08:59
@Jag Kaurah:
It is in our longer term plans. But we have to go each step at a time. First step is to replicate Celani cell, not to improve it.
We tried to improve it by using fused quartz instead of borsilicate glass and it was a mistake.

@Al Potenza
Very true. Unless we can measure excess heat way above our measurement margin of error, we will not be able to demonstrate anything.
The next generation of the cell will be much easier to fit in a calorimeter. But again, we have to go step by step.
+2 #4 Al Potenza 2012-11-20 15:52
In your system, chemical energy is an unlikely cause of excess power or energy. However, absent formal calorimetry, an error of measurement or interpretation of data is possible.

The longer the run and the higher the excess power, the less it is likely, says Captain Obvious.
+1 #3 Jag Kaurah 2012-11-20 15:18
why not cram 10 or more Celani wires in and see a much bigger efect?
+1 #2 Nicolas Chauvin 2012-11-20 14:46
Indeed, a very legitimate question.

We are trying our best to demonstrate that excess heat can be produced. So far, we still have to solve some design issues before reaching temperature above 300°C where we could hopefully see the effect.
+2 #1 Ecco 2012-11-20 14:16
Thanks for the explanation. So, since chemical reactions are ruled out, the question can only be: is the cell actually producing excess heat? Big question.

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