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TOPIC: NiCu Wire Preparation Protocol

#439 7 years 1 month ago
NiCu Wire Preparation Protocol

jeff's Avatar
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Recently I purchased some 10 mil constantan wire from Omega Engineering and subjected it to repeated heat/quench cycles utilizing Joule heating. The wire developed an oxide layer that was grey in appearance and would spall off when the wire was flexed.

The wire was then placed in a cell with H2 and heated to ~400C. When the wire was removed the gray surface had changed to a copper color, indicating that the CuO was reduced to metallic copper. However, without SEM photos, I have no means of verifying the surface morphology.

Has anyone else attempted to replicate Celani's wire preparation protocol, and if so, what results have you had? Also, does anyone know whether the wire Celani furnishes has been prepared with the coloidal silica protocol, or just used oxidation?

Jeff
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#462 7 years 1 month ago
NiCu Wire Preparation Protocol

Jamie_S's Avatar
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I have been looking over Celani's patents, and this is what I can conclude so far.

His wire preparation is as follows:

1) Clean wire
2) Form oxidization layer in air by heating
3) Apply colloidal silica
4) Heat until silica vitrifies
5) Apply an etching and plating solution
6) Heat again in air
7) Heat in a hydrogen atmosphere.

What I have done is identified the reasons for each step.

1) Clean wire - obvious

2) This oxide layer may reduce the temperature that the colloidal silica vitrifies. In class making, calcium oxide is used to lower the melting point of sand. In this case, nickel oxide may perform a similar task.

3) An aqueous solution of colloidal silica is applied. When the water evaporates, the silica particles form a thin and tightly packed surface on the wire.

4) Heating the wire and melting the nano-silica particles forms a glass surface on the wire with tiny holes between the silica particles. ( read about colloidal lithography )

5+6) The etching and plating solution used contains Phosphoric acid, Nickel Nitrate, and colloidal Silica. The nickel nitrate decomposes to nickel metal and gasses, leaving a nickel plating behind when heated about its 360*C decomposition temperature.
Initially I though the phosphoric acid was used to etch the silicon dioxide left behind from the previous step, but upon further reading, Phosphoric acid does not etch or attack silicon dioxide if there is an over abundance of silicon present in the etching solution, like there is here by adding colloidal silica tot eh etching solution. My next thought is that the phosphoric acid is used to convert the nickel oxide layer into a nickel phosphate, where the acid solution is able to get through the vitrified silica layer from steps 3 + 4. This is just an assumption I made because Phosphoric acid does the same thing to Iron Oxide.
The reason for including colloidal silica in this step may be to form another semi-permeable layer of silica for the subsequent repeats of these steps.

7) Heating in a hydrogen atmosphere. I believe this step is to convert all oxygen containing compounds into there base elements + water. Nickel oxide, Silicon dioxide and Nickel phosphate would all be converted.

What should remain is a highly etched nickel wire, with additional nickel plating from the Nickel nitrate used. The patent was not clear what steps get repeated to build additional layers, but I think is steps 3 through 7 that would be repeated as many times as desired.

Each cycle though the steps should yield and increase in weight from the nickel being deposited from the nickel nitrate.

also, the patent mentions adding palladium nitrate to the acid solution, in addition tot he nickel nitrate. This would form layers of metal plating containing both nickel and palladium.

I am not sure if this was used in the wires provided to the MFMP.

I hope this is informative. Please reply with any corrections to my assumptions or chemistry skills. I know they are not top notch.
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