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TOPIC: Simplified Calorimeter Scheme

#358 7 years 3 months ago
Simplified Calorimeter Scheme

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Here is an idea for a much simpler calorimeter.

The measurement is based on two thermocouples hooked up differentially. Assume a type K (chromel-alumel couple). Take two small thermocouples and hook up the alumel wires together. The remaining two chromel leads are connected to a voltmeter. The voltage output is proportional to the temperature difference between the two junctions. This is basic thermocouples, nothing new.

Now place one junction near the plain heater wire, and the other junction near the active LENR wire. Make sure the distance between the two couples is reasonably great- say a centimeter or two. When equal power is applied to the heater and active wires, the temperature difference between the two thermocouples will move towards zero. The power can be raised to any needed level to get the desired operating temperature, but the powers should be equal. As the LENR effect kicks in, the active wire will get hotter, and the delta T will show up on the voltmeter.

Calibration is easy: Start with a balanced and nulled system. Put one more watt of power on the active wire and note the voltage change. Repeat as desired. This differential effect removes all heat transport questions and difficulties. The heat just flows to the outside world through any arbitrary path while creating the temperature difference we want to measure.

The instrument needs programmable power supplies for both heater wires.

I envision a ceramic wiring support built from multiple alternating thin flat washers and hollow spacer beads, threaded on a stainless steel rod. The heater/LENR coil winding pitch would be set by the bead-washer dimension.

Each washer would need some machining: Two small narrow slots ~0.5x0.5 mm would need to be cut on opposite sides of the perimeter of the washer. These two slots would be for the heater and LENR wires. Next to each slot, a thermocouple hole would need to be drilled. Say 0.5 mm diameter. The washers should be 3-4 cm in diameter or whatever.

Improved operation could be obtained with additional thermocouples connected in series. Each new pair would be match with the corresponding active and reference wires. Maybe 10 or 20 could be installed in the ceramic assembly before the coil winding operation. This would both increase the sensitivity and allow monitoring of a larger region for activity.

Mechanical symmetry is important for good differential accuracy.

Feed-through wiring is only two heater wires and a single pair of similar half thermocouple wires.

Computations should be simple and be based on possibly calibration curves. If we assume that most of the temperature difference is caused by thermal conduction through the ceramic, then only one curve is necessary. If fill gas thermal conduction contributes, then curves will be needed at multiple pressures. If the chemistry of the gas changes during the experiment, we will have a minor issue in this case.
Alternatively, the caloirimeter could be operated in a constant "delta temperature" mode. As the LENR wire generates heat (power), the LENR temperature sensor will get hotter. The power to the reference heater wire could be increased to bring the delta T back to zero. The output signal would be the additional power needed to restore thermal equilibrium. I think this isothermal mode is preferred.

Any thoughts?


jdk
Last Edit: 7 years 3 months ago by jdk.
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#361 7 years 2 months ago
Simplified Calorimeter Scheme

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Thank you for you input John,

I have envisioned some solution using alternated TC wiring for quite some time.
It would be very accurate if the thermal gradient along the cell wouldn't be so great. Out of that, the principle would give an exact value of excess heat generation from the wire. This is even more interesting that it is not dependent on the gaz nature/mixture, as long as you calibrate with the same atmosphere.

Your idea of the setup is interesting and would be even more valuable with a simple schematic to make it easier for everyone to understand.

Faithfully
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#395 7 years 2 months ago
Simplified Calorimeter Scheme

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The device described above depends upon the symmetry of the heat inputs to create a balance of the thermal flows. If the thermal conductivity changes on one wire, but not the other, then the differential scheme falls apart when the differences in heat flow from the LENR wire and the orther heater will no longer sutratact to zero.

A DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) with no power inputs would readily solve this issue. I have heard the arguments that electrical heat input is required, but I don't understand why. Wilth less than perfect design, the electric power inputs seem to the source of many of the questionable measurements and flaky behaviors. These problems appear to come from unstable incrediants in the recipe: the nickel characteristics are changing during the experiment; the hydrogen is likely also changing during the experiment. etc. As a result of these changes, the surface temperatures are changing from the time of calibration state and perhaps wrongly indicating energy production.
A DSC has a stable power flow arrangement to both the active and reference sample areas. The thermal paths are not part of the experiment. Any heat absorbed or generated in the active sampling pan is quantitatively measured. Chop up some Celani wire and put it in a very hot hydrogen envionment and see what happens. Hydrogen absorbtion will show up as an transient endothermic signal. The baseline will return to zero when all the absorbtion is finished. Metalugical changes will also cause a transient baseline shift. Any heat generated in the active sample dish by a physical, chemical and nuclear transition will be detected with sub micro-watt resolution.
I think my internal model is still evolving.

jdk

jdk
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#472 7 years 2 weeks ago
Simplified Calorimeter Scheme

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mathieu,

I would lkie to send drawings and schematics, but the file transfer (mime?) doe not seem to be working. I have thought a bit about a differential scheme. (see above) . I was discouraged when I added atomic hydrogen into the calorimeter model. This creates multiple thermal transfer pathways which complicates things a bit.
I will try to draw a verbal model of newer present thinking: There are two wires in the chamber. One is a neutral heating wire. The other is an active wire. They are mounted at each end of a thermally highly conductive metal structrure. A very thin ceramic electrical insulator around each wire prevents the electrical power from leaking between the two heater circuits. The thermocouples are located as close as posible to the heater wires, The differential thermocouples could be spot-welded to the metal structure. There are obviously two thermal paths between the ends of the metal bar: The path through the bar, and the path across the gas, which may not be constant becuase of unpredictable hydrogen chemical processes. If the thermal conductivity of the metal bar is very much larger than the conductivity of gas path, then the chemical changes in the gas path can be mostly ignored.
Calibration is easy. Run the system with equal power in both circuits under non reactive conditions. This is the "balanced" point. Due to sligh variations in assembly, this may not be exactly at electrical balance, but we can call this the balance point. Add 1 watt to the active heating wire. We are calibrated.
If even better performance is needed, we can adapt the system to "modulation calorimetry".

http//144.206.159.178/ft/849/46359/14264965.pdf


jdk
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#473 7 years 2 weeks ago
Simplified Calorimeter Scheme

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Hi Jdk,

Thanks for your regular contributions.

I think that the key issue with this is that it is reported that the effect is highly localised. That is a particular part of the wire may not see events or may see many and this may change over time.

B
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#474 7 years 2 weeks ago
Simplified Calorimeter Scheme

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The problem with directly measuring a differential temperature between two thermocouples is that the voltage generated by a TC is not linear with temperature. In order to measure temperature differentially it's necessary to record the voltage across each TC, convert to a temperature, and then take the difference. I use a pair of Omega DP-25 thermocouple meters, each of which provides an output voltage proportional to temperature. With this method it is possible to connect the two meter outputs in series and get a voltage proportional to the temperature delta.

jeff
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#504 6 years 11 months ago
Simplified Calorimeter Scheme

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Thanks for your input, it is obviously necessary to use proportionnal TCs to implement such thing.

JDK, I am trying to get this PDF out, I guess that you pulled out this link due to my late reply. You can always send it to mathieu [.at.] quantumheat. Thanks
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#521 6 years 10 months ago
Simplified Calorimeter Scheme

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The copywrite holders have closed down all the web copies of Kraftmakher 's papers. The article I referenced is no longer available. I found a much better paper:
"Modeling and Analysis of Temperature Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC)" ,
by XU SHENXI. THis is a phd thesis from U of Singapore. The first chapter, about 100 pages, is a wonderful overvue/introduction to modulation and calorimetry.
try this web site:
scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/bitstream/handle/...XuSHX.pdf?sequence=1

jdk
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