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*GlowStick* 5

Geschrieben von Robert Greenyer am .

Learning from Particle 3 in the Fuel and other historical Rossi related data - and the recent work by Holmlid, this replications fuel will be Hunter AH50 + LiAlH4 + HTED-04 catalyst.

Good luck to Alan and Mark!




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0 #221 uc mini 2017-12-26 22:10
I for all time emailed this website post page to all my contacts,
because if like to read it after that my friends will too.
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0 #220 AlanG 2016-01-17 20:41
The first GS5.2 test is now under way. The cell is loaded with pre-baked Hunter AH50 Ni powder but no LAH. The system was evacuated to 40 um and Hydrogen added to 15.2 psia. After some settling time, I'll heat the cell to ~180 C and let it sit for an extended period. Hydrogen loading into Nickel is a slow process, so not much will be happening except (hopefully) a gradual drop in the Hydrogen pressure.

The live data and video stream (with chat sidebar) is available at:
magicsound.us/MFMP/video

Here's an image of the cell components before assembly:
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0 #219 AlanG 2016-01-13 23:56
@David Kidwell,

None of the 5 Glowstick experiments so far have produced convincing results, with the maximum excess heat observed being less than the cumulative accuracy of calorimetry. They should therefore be considered null tests, but have served well for ongoing development and debugging of the apparatus.

The next iteration (GS5.2) is under construction, and we hope to begin calibrations next week. The focus for this test will be the hydrogen loading behavior of various Nickel powders, leading up to a longer-duration experiment with fuel prepared according to the Rossi patent.
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0 #218 david Kidwell 2016-01-13 21:30
I have lost track. Have any of your glow sticks shown promising results?

We also considered that Rossi was stimulating his powders with RF based on the number of wires going into the system. A simple oscilloscope would have caught this but Rossi apparently prohibited their use. As to the frequency, we tried a number of things along those lines with numerous Ni systems on various supports and saw nothing. This was before LiAlH4 came into vogue, so we may have had the wrong materials.
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0 #217 jeff morriss 2016-01-13 09:05
Quoting Alan Smith:
@Jeff. A further thought - can you (within reason) make your IH system variable frequency or mixed frequency? Dirty/noisy chopped heater current seems to work best, hence my suggestion.


In general, the answer is no. Inductive heating operates by means of a high Q L/C circuit, and high Q circuits typically have very narrow bandwidths which yield sinusoidal waveforms.
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0 #216 jeff morriss 2016-01-13 00:29
Regarding your last comments: I plan to utilize IR thermometry to monitor the cell surface temperature. A TC can yield accurate readings if the inductive heater is turned off for a few seconds while making TC readings. Since the fuel will be contained in an SS capsule, most heating thereof will due to heating of the SS. I'll need to compute the skin depth of SS to get an exact figure here.

I also experimented previously with a PWM supply but found no difference in terms of excess heat (ie, none) compared to DC heating. However, the B-field strength for PWM is no where near as strong as for inductive heating, where hundreds of amps can flow through the work coil.
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0 #215 AlanG 2016-01-12 18:27
@Jeff Morriss
Inductive heating has the advantages you mention, but also presents challenges. For example, thermocouples exposed to the field would suffer from both induced voltage and induced heat, limiting their accuracy. And for direct heating of Ni fuel in powder form, the heating would be unpredictable unless the particle size is uniform and known, and would change significantly as the Ni exceeds its Curie temperature.

These problems can be mitigated by careful design and engineering, at the probable cost of added complexity and development time.

If you have solutions for these problems I'd be very happy to apply them to the Glowstick reactor. I've been testing a Class D power supply capable of sourcing arbitrary waveforms up to 30 kHz and 1200 watts. It can also be modified to use the 500 kHz chopped output without filtering.
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0 #214 Alan Smith 2016-01-12 10:03
@Jeff. A further thought - can you (within reason) make your IH system variable frequency or mixed frequency? Dirty/noisy chopped heater current seems to work best, hence my suggestion.
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0 #213 Alan Smith 2016-01-12 10:00
Quoting jeff morriss:
Has anyone considered using inductive heating to control the cell temperature? It's main advantage is that it is non-contact and is not subject to burnout. Additionally, the maximum temperature is limited by the cell, not the heater wire materials. Some people have made comments that LENR requires an alternating magnetic field. This is precisely how inductive heating works, and the B-field will penetrate throughout the call walls and the fuel. I put together a 2-transistor self-resonant design that simulates correctly So building and testing such a heater should not be that difficult.


Hi Jeff. Induction heating seems to be a very workable idea. I did see some Russian video (sadly forget where) using IH to stimulate LENR in Titanium. About a year ago I think.

As far as comments about the need for a magnetic field goes, they are 'spot on'. Even Rossi has touched on this. But the need is for a stimulus to kick the dog into life. Laser light, magnetic fields are just a couple of the candidates. I hope you get a chance to try your idea, you are a vary capable experimenter and the ideal person to check it out.
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0 #212 jeff morriss 2016-01-12 09:05
Has anyone considered using inductive heating to control the cell temperature? It's main advantage is that it is non-contact and is not subject to burnout. Additionally, the maximum temperature is limited by the cell, not the heater wire materials. Some people have made comments that LENR requires an alternating magnetic field. This is precisely how inductive heating works, and the B-field will penetrate throughout the call walls and the fuel. I put together a 2-transistor self-resonant design that simulates correctly So building and testing such a heater should not be that difficult.
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0 #211 Robert Greenyer 2016-01-07 02:29
@Eric

Not such a silly idea - and one that is being considered.
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0 #210 EccoEcco 2016-01-02 15:23
@Alan Smith: thanks for the tip, I haven't thought of that. It would be very interesting if activated natural zeolite could properly adsorb that as it would make for an economically very accessible (and safe) experiment with potentially active nanoclusters. If the result is a true colloidal suspension it probably won't due to the average pore size in the order of a few angstroms, however.


EDIT: as a reminder/side note, besides sintering more easily, small nanoparticles also melt at much lower temperatures than larger particles. This phenomenon is known as melting point depression. I was alrady aware of this but I didn't remember that the melting point could drop this low for very small metallic ones.



Also see:

tp://www.carolina.com/teacher-resources/Interactive/what's-so-unusual-about-nanomaterial-melting-points%3F/tr23010.tr
(the full URL breaks here; replace "tp" with "http")


This makes me wonder about loaded zeolites - what's going on there exactly once they're loaded?

EDIT2: nothing special apparently, at least on industrially employed Y zeolites. Successfully embedded metallic nanoparticles of very small size have been found to be stable in more conventional studies:

http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4344/3/3/599/htm
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2008/257691/
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-14391999000300018 (Pt-Ni zeolite catalysts)
http://www.eng.uc.edu/~beaucag/Research/050913_ArgonneWorkshop/GoldParticlesonSupport/depositonzeolites2001.pdf
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0 #209 Alan Smith 2016-01-02 14:51
@EccoEcco. No -no electrolyte is used. Hard to think of one that would be suitable - and not compromise the Nickel.

The low conductivity means you need 30V at least and small electrode area (to raise the current density). Close-space the electrodes at the start -the current will be only a few hundred mA at the start. but as the Ni disintegrates into the hydride the conductivity of the DW rises. Then you can move the electrodes apart to keep the current down.

I learnt the method making colloidal gold and colloidal silver in the lab many years ago.
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0 #208 EccoEcco 2016-01-02 13:12
@Alan Smith: I know very little about electrochemistr y, and if I were to perform such an experiment myself I would probably go through the aqueous metal salt solution loading and subsequent annealing in H2 atmosphere, inspired by past experiments with zeolites by N. Reiter. Just a question, though: how quickly does the reaction you observed take place in distilled water? In absence of an electrolyte its electrical conductivity should be very low. I previously assumed you used one but after reading again the comments, perhaps you actually didn't?
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0 #207 Alan Smith 2016-01-02 09:25
@EccoEcco/Bob Greenyer.

You guys encouraged me to research exactly what my weak gel of Nickel in water is. This seems to be the likely candidate - and maybe a way to make nano-nickel for ourselves?
.
Ni2+ in aqueous solution exists as the octahedral complex ion hexaaquanickel (II), [Ni(H2O)6]2+.


@Alan Smith: very useful suggestion (for different experiments than currently discussed). If 13X zeolites are capable of adsorbing that, it means that colloidal particle size is small enough for potentially hosting LENR.
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